Atomic structure, Bonding, Polar vs. Nonpolar Molecules, Hydrophobic vs. Hydrophilic substances, Properties of Water, pH, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids,Enzymes
Life, Origin of Cells, Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes, Cell Structure, Organelles, Organelle Function, and Basic Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell Differentiation.
Passive Movement, Active Transport, Facilitated Diffusion, Exocytosis/Endocytosis, Channel Proteins, Symports/Antiports, Receptor-Mediated Transport, and Transport Vesicles.
Gibbs Free Energy, ATP, Coupled Reactions, Aerobic/Anaerobic Cycle, Glycolysis, Electron Transport Chain, Oxidative Phosphorylation,and Lactic Acid/Alcoholic Fermentation.
DNA, DNA Replication, RNA, Translation, Transcription, Genetic Code Mutation,and Introduction to Chromosomes.
Cell Replication and Division:
Cellular Motors, Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis, Cdk, Cyclin, Checkpoints, p51, and Centromeres.
Inheritance Traits, Alleles, Punnett Squares, Meiosis, Gametes, Diploid/Haploid, Spermatogenesis/Oogenesis, Mendel’s Experiments/Laws, Mutations, and Pedigrees.
Evidence of Evolution, Darwin’s Theory, Lamarck’s Theory, Natural Selection, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, Convergent Evolution, Diversity, and Variation.
Five Kingdoms, Main Phyla, Plant Types, Mammals, Seven Main Classes of Vertebrates, and General Taxonomic Classification.
Nervous System, The Five Senses, Endocrine System, Circulatory System, Respiratory System, Immune System, Digestive System, Excretory System, Skeletal System, Muscular System, Skin, and Reproductive System.
Behavior and Viruses:
Virus Life Cycle, Virus Structure, Instinct, Learning, and Circadian Rhythms.
Types of Plants, Vascular Tissues, Tracheophytes, Leaves/Chloroplasts, Photosynthesis, Light Reactions, Calvin Cycle, Plant Hormones, Tropisms, and Reproduction in Plants.
Populations, Niche, Competition, Predation, Symbiosis, Food Relationships, Ecological Succession, Ecosystems, Water/Carbon/Nitrogen Cycle, Terrestrial and Aquatic Biomes.
Cell Signaling Pathways (Advanced):
Golgi Apparatus, COPII, COPI, Clathrin Coats, V/T Snares, Tethers, Endoplasmic Reticulum, GTP/GAP/GEF, and Messengers
Development Stages, Drosophilia, Mesoderm, Ectoderm, Endoderm, C. elegans, Frog Embryo, Human Embryo Development, Zygotes, Gametes, and Axes.