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Biology Syllabus

Atomic structure, Bonding, Polar vs. Nonpolar Molecules, Hydrophobic vs. Hydrophilic substances, Properties of Water, pH, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids,Enzymes

Cell Theory:
Life, Origin of Cells, Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes, Cell Structure, Organelles, Organelle Function, and Basic Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell Differentiation.

Cellular Transport:
Passive Movement, Active Transport, Facilitated Diffusion, Exocytosis/Endocytosis, Channel Proteins, Symports/Antiports, Receptor-Mediated Transport, and Transport Vesicles.

Cellular Respiration:
Gibbs Free Energy, ATP, Coupled Reactions, Aerobic/Anaerobic Cycle, Glycolysis, Electron Transport Chain, Oxidative Phosphorylation,and Lactic Acid/Alcoholic Fermentation.

DNA, DNA Replication, RNA, Translation, Transcription, Genetic Code Mutation,and Introduction to Chromosomes.

Cell Replication and Division:
Cellular Motors, Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis, Cdk, Cyclin, Checkpoints, p51, and Centromeres.

Mendelian Genetics:
Inheritance Traits, Alleles, Punnett Squares, Meiosis, Gametes, Diploid/Haploid, Spermatogenesis/Oogenesis, Mendel’s Experiments/Laws, Mutations, and Pedigrees.

Evidence of Evolution, Darwin’s Theory, Lamarck’s Theory, Natural Selection, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, Convergent Evolution, Diversity, and Variation.
Five Kingdoms, Main Phyla, Plant Types, Mammals, Seven Main Classes of Vertebrates, and General Taxonomic Classification.

Animal Structures:

Nervous System, The Five Senses, Endocrine System, Circulatory System, Respiratory System, Immune System, Digestive System, Excretory System, Skeletal System, Muscular System, Skin, and Reproductive System.

Behavior and Viruses:

Virus Life Cycle, Virus Structure, Instinct, Learning, and Circadian Rhythms.

Plant Structures:

Types of Plants, Vascular Tissues, Tracheophytes, Leaves/Chloroplasts, Photosynthesis, Light Reactions, Calvin Cycle, Plant Hormones, Tropisms, and Reproduction in Plants.


Populations, Niche, Competition, Predation, Symbiosis, Food Relationships, Ecological Succession, Ecosystems, Water/Carbon/Nitrogen Cycle, Terrestrial and Aquatic Biomes.

Cell Signaling Pathways (Advanced):

Golgi Apparatus, COPII, COPI, Clathrin Coats, V/T Snares, Tethers, Endoplasmic Reticulum, GTP/GAP/GEF, and Messengers

Development (Advanced):

Development Stages, Drosophilia, Mesoderm, Ectoderm, Endoderm, C. elegans, Frog Embryo, Human Embryo Development, Zygotes, Gametes, and Axes.